To efficiently use lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates as fermentation media for bioethanol production, besides being capable of producing significant amount of ethanol, the fermenting host should also meet the following two requirements: (1) resistant to the inhibitory compounds formed during biomass pretreatment process, (2) capable of utilizing C5 sugars, such as xylose, as carbon source. In our laboratory, a screening was conducted on microorganisms collected from environmental sources for their tolerance to hydrolysate inhibitors. A unique resistant strain was selected and identified as Pichia anomala (Wickerhamomyces anomalus), deposited as CBS 132101. The strain is able to produce ethanol in various biomass hydrolysates, both with and without oxygen. Besides, the strain could assimilate xylose and use nitrate as N source. These physiological characteristics make P. anomala an interesting strain for bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates.